Continued: The story of the deep carbon cycle…

… and the big black bear

Last summer, I was fighting my way through the boreal forests of Newfoundland in Canada, a place well renowned for its wildlife. Hence I was heavily armoured with big hammers, a huge can of strong pepper spray and some bear banger cartridges in my pocket, always smelling of mosquito repellent and making a lot of noise, in order not to surprise a sleeping black bear in the bushes. In the end, I didn’t need the bear spray or the cartridges, but every now and then signs of bears in our field area reminded us of their presence. And I took these safety measures much more seriously after we encountered a black bear close to a local landfill: you just feel small and vulnerable in front of such a huge, beautiful and elegant animal that is only 20 meters away from you, even if your car is just two meters behind you.

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Fig1. Some of the wild life a geologist might need to be worried about.

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Why do minerals have colours?

Because some of you asked during ‘La Fête de la Science’ in Paris why minerals have different colors I decided to write this post about it.

First of all, I need to define the electromagnetic spectrum, and the energetic distribution of electromagnetic waves. But what is a wave? Let’s make that clear by looking at waves in the ocean (figure 1).

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Figure 1: Ocean waves (source: http://www.livescience.com/38361-how-do-ocean-waves-form.html)

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